Yeosu Regional Maritime Affair & Port Office-The Port Gwangyang & Yeosu
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Masitime Safety
FSC
PSC
ISPS
CIP
Navigation Route Beacons
Maritime safety Port State Control
Port State Control
-Yeosu Regional Maritime Affairs and Office
PSC is able to check whether a ship of foreign nationality complies with the safety criteria of international agreements.
You can refer to the definition and purpose of the PSC, the background of its birth, the first instance, the yearly change of regulations, and the control basis of the PSC.
Definition
PSC means that port authorities have the right to check whether a ship of foreign nationality complies with the safety criteria of international agreements, and also have the right to lay an embargo on the foreign ship, if necessary.
Purpose
Marine accidents can cause a great loss of human life and property damages, and especially the accident of a ship carrying dangerous goods such as an oil tanker can cause a serious and huge environmental damage to the coastal countries.
Therefore, the purpose of PSC is to protect the human life, property, and maritime environment of a coastal country from the marine accident that can be caused by a foreign ship lacking safety criteria.
Background of PSC
Concerning the safety problem of international ships, the flag state principle, in which a country is responsible for the ship carrying its national flag, has been applied in general, but since the World War 2, the transfer of ship’s nationality has become popular in an effort to evade various kinds of taxes. Many shippers transferred the nationality of their ships to that of emerging countries where the tough regulations of international agreements can be avoided. That is to say, the Flag of Convenience (FOC) vessels have increased. However, those emerging countries generally lack of the responsibility to fulfill the flag state’s obligation of international agreements. Because of this, the FOC vessels were prone to neglect the duty of controlling the ships of domestic nationality. The increase of FOC vessels has led to the occurrence of huge maritime accidents. For this reason, in order to supplement the weakness of flag state and to increase marine safety, a new system has been needed. That is, the system, which authorizes the PSC or coastal countries to control foreign ships, has been developed.
The First Instance
Along with increasing concerns about maritime environment protection, many advanced countries have independently made regulations on the marine safety and security, but in 1976 an oil tanker carrying crude oil of about 220,000 tons was stranded on the coast of France, spilling its crude oil, and consequently causing huge damages to the coastal countries. This accident called “Amococardis Accident” has been caused by FOC vessel of Liberia nationality. As a result of this accident, in 1982 many European countries has adopted the MOU of PSC, and this is the first instance of Port State Control now widely in use all over the world.
Yearly Changes of Regulations
Year Accident Legal measures Changes of regulations
1912 Titanic Sinking Accident SOLAS convention adoption in 1914 · strengthening maritime safety criteria
· strengthening flag state
1967 Torrey Canyon Accident Convention on Intervention on the high seas in cases of oil pollution casualties in 1969
CLC(International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage) in 1969
· intervention on the accidents of the coastal countries
1978 Amococardis Accident MARPOL in 1978
SOLAS Protocol in 1978
STCW in 1978
· raising strengthening flag state
1987 Herald of Free Enterprise Accident ISM (International Safety Management) Code adopted by IMO · strengthening safety check
1990 Scandinavian Star Fire Accident
2001 9.11 terrorist attacks on the USA ISPS Code adopted by IMO · strengthening port and ship security
Control Basis of PSC
International Convention
· in 1996, International Convention on Load Lines 1966 (LL 66)
· in 1974 and in 1978, SOLAS 74/78
· in 1973 and in 1978, International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78)
· in 1978 and in 1995, The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW 78/95)
· in 1972, International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG 72)
· in 1969, International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships (ITC 69)
· in 1976, The Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 (ILO 147)
Domestic laws
· Law on ship safety, law on ship, law on seafarers, law on ship’s crew, law on marine traffic safety, law on marine environment management
PSC related sites
Overseas sites
· IMO - http://www.imo.org
· AMSA - http://www.amsa.gov.au
· PARIS MOU - http://www.parismou.org
· TOKYO MOU - http://www.tokyo-mou.org
· USCG - http://homeport.uscg.mil
· International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) - http://www.iacs.org.uk
· Baltic and International Maritime Conference (BIMCO) - http://www.bimco.dk
Domestic sites
· PSC Information - http://www.psc2002.net
· Korean Register of Shipping (KR) - http://www.krs.co.kr
· Korea Ship Safety Technology Authority (KST) - http://www.kst.or.kr
· Korea Shipowners’ Association - http://www.shipowner.or.kr